Download. To design effective shielding for spacecraft and to evaluate the risk posed by orbital debris and meteoroids, we must be able to perform tests in the laboratory. We test over a wide range of impact conditions from low to hypervelocity impacts to develop shielding from concept to final product. To get the best experience possible, please download a compatible browser. You have already liked this page, you can only like it once! Hypervelocity Impact (HVI) Volume 2: WLE Small-Scale Fiberglass Panel Flat Targets A-1, A-2, and B-1 Introduction In the wake of the Columbia accident, NASA personnel decided to test the idea that impacts during space flight could be detected by acoustical sensors at ultrasonic frequencies. A red color indicates high impact risk from MMOD, and blue color indicates low impact risk. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, watch NASA TV live, and learn about our quest to reveal the unknown and benefit all humankind. MP4 [637.98 kB] SOURCE MP4 [2.52 MB] Thank you for liking. International Space Station MMOD shield locations (HVIT geometry model); each color represents a different level of impact risk. OSTI.GOV Journal Article: Hypervelocity impact testing above 10 km/s of advanced orbital debris shields The Hypervelocity Impact Society (HVIS) fosters the development and exchange of technical information in the discipline of hypervelocity impact phenomena by promoting technical excellence, encouraging peer review publications, and holding technical meetings on a periodic basis. An experimental hypervelocity impact campaign was performed at two different two-stage light gas guns which encompassed both normal and oblique impacts for a range of impact velocities and projectile diameters. A series of 66 hypervelocity impact experiments have been performed to assess the potential of various materials (aluminium, titanium, copper, stainless steel, nickel, nickel/chromium, reticulated vitreous carbon, silver, ceramic, aramid, ceramic glass, and carbon fibre) and structures (monolithic plates, open-cell foam, flexible fabrics, rigid meshes) for micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shielding. The Johnson Space Center and the NASA White Sands Test Facility's Remote Hypervelocity Test Laboratory (RHTL) compose a team dedicated to evaluating the environmental effects from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on orbiting spacecraft. I would like to subscribe to Science X Newsletter. The Hypervelocity team, including ERC’s finest, assesses the protective armor by using two-stage light gas guns (LGG). Hypervelocity impact on CFRP: testing, material modelling, and numerical simulation, International Journal of Impact Engineering (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2008.07.015 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. For this impact condition, potential weight savings of at least 47% over conventional all-aluminium Whipple shields are possible by utilizing the investigated materials and structures. xmlns:xsl='http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform'">. Hypervelocity Impact Testing. javascript is enabled. Projectile sizes range from 0.6mm to 3.18mm for Range 8 configured as a three-stage, light-gas gun. ► Performance evaluated in 66 hypervelocity impact tests. The >10 km/s experiments are complemented by hydrocode analysis and light-gas gun testing at the JSC Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (HIT-F) to assess the effects of projectile shape on shield performance. In our laboratory, we carry out tests that are key to understanding the behaviour of materials subjected to hypervelocity impacts. The NASA Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) team has analyzed many spacecraft and conducted thousands of hypervelocity impact tests since its inception almost four decades ago. ► Various advanced materials evaluated under hypervelocity impact.  The team designs and tests turnkey solutions for mitigating MMOD impact effects on spacecraft. HyperVelocity Impact testing has some extreme requirements and presents us with the following challenges: Hypervelocity Impact Testing • Purpose: – Provide data to develop, update, and/or verify ballistic limit equations used in the MMOD risk assessment – Provide data used to compare two or more shielding options to reduce MMOD risk – Determine failure modes and failure criteria for hardware • Once a targeted material reaches a point where it is ready for impact analysis, HITF personnel team up with White Sand Test Facility’s (WSTF) Hypervelocity Impact (HVI) test team for ballistic testing. The numerical predictions capture the main mechanisms observed during hypervelocity impact testing. This paper was presented during the 62nd IAC in Cape Town. Specialised Imaging reports on how the Institute of Astronautics, Technical University of Munich, Germany has used a SIM-X ultra-high speed framing camera to record high resolution images of hypervelocity impacts on granular media samples with different bulk densities. If you know your browser is up to date, you should check to ensure that KEYWORDS: Satellites, spacecraft materials, hypervelocity impact (HVI) , numerical simulations INTRODUCTION W. P. Schonberg (1) presents an overview of the results of impact tests performed on A recent experimental hypervelocity impact test campaign has been performed at the Ernst-Mach-Institute (EMI) investigating the behavior of CFRP/Al HC sandwich panel (SP) structures during HVI [3]. As a Thus, metals and fluids behave alike under hypervelocity impact. The near-Earth space environment is cluttered with manmade orbital debris and naturally occurring meteoroid particles.  Most of the debris particles are very small; however, they are moving at velocities averaging up to 15 kilometers per second and can pose significant impact hazard for orbiting spacecraft and personnel.  Although some of these particles eventually fall back to Earth and burn up in the atmosphere, new debris particles are frequently added to the environment by such sources as exploding spacecraft and discharged spacecraft waste. Solar array coupons designed for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system were subjected to hypervelocity impacts using the HYPER facility in the Space Power Institute at Auburn University and the Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Simulation Facility in the Materials and Processes Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX ARNOLD AIR FORCE BASE, TENNESSEE AIR FORCE TEST CENTER The Hypervelocity impact testing . Impact velocities and residual velocities were measured. @article{osti_76219, title = {Hypervelocity impact testing of spacecraft optical sensors}, author = {}, abstractNote = {Hypervelocity tests of spacecraft optical sensors were conducted to determine if the optical signature from an impact inside the optical sensor sunshade resembled signals that have been observed on-orbit. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Your name. Applications for this facility include design and evaluation of orbital debris shielding, lethality/survivability for theater missile defense systems, and characterization of Kinetic Energy penetrator performance. s −1 are used to compare the performance of Whipple shields integrated with layers of metallic glasses with a baseline target analogue of one of the shields similar to … A red color indicates high impact risk from MMOD, and blue color indicates low impact risk. The results of this study identify materials and structures of interest for further, more in-depth, impact investigations. DebriSat Hypervelocity Impact Test E. Marshall Polk United States Air Force and Brian E. Roebuck Aerospace Testing Alliance August 2015 Final Report for Period 1 – 15 April 2014 Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Also, the predicted residual Hypervelocity tests of spacecraft optical sensors were conducted to determine if the optical signature from an impact inside the optical sensor sunshade resembled signals that have been observed on-orbit. Note. A red color indicates high impact risk from MMOD, and blue color indicates low impact risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This team has the in-house ability to prepare and plan hypervelocity impact tests, perform post-test damage analysis, conduct computer impact simulations and spacecraft risk assessments. ► Potential weight savings of over 47% achievable. 20/02/2018 24866 views 30 likes 390480 ID 00:00:05 Like. The top performing shields were identified through target damage assessments and their respective weight. Based on impact analysis results, heavier/more capable MMOD shielding is used in red areas, and lighter/less capable shielding in blue areas. Image: Hypervelocity impact testing. Arranged in various single-, double-, and triple-bumper configurations, screening tests were performed with 0.3175 cm diameter Al2017-T4 spherical projectiles at nominally 6.8 km/s and normal incidence. A series of 66 hypervelocity impact experiments have been performed to assess the potential of various materials (aluminium, titanium, copper, stainless steel, nickel, nickel/chromium, reticulated vitreous carbon, silver, ceramic, aramid, ceramic glass, and carbon fibre) and structures (monolithic plates, open-cell foam, flexible fabrics, rigid meshes) for micrometeoroid and orbital debris … https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.09.012. In general, double-bumper candidates with aluminium plate outer bumpers and foam inner bumpers were consistently found to be amongst the top performers. Please cite this article as: Wicklein M, Ryan S, White DM, Clegg RA. General Inquiry: Strategic Opportunities & Partnership Development Office Phone: 281.483.3000 Email: JSC-Partnerships@mail.nasa.gov Mailing Address: National Aeronautics & Space Administration Johnson Space Center Mail Code: AO 2101 NASA Parkway Houston, Texas 77058, International Space Station MMOD shield locations (HVIT geometry model); each color represents a different level of impact risk. ► Focus on metal open-cell foams. Hypervelocity is very high velocity, approximately over 3,000 meters per second (6,700 mph, 11,000 km/h, 10,000 ft/s, or Mach 8.8). Learn more. s −1 are used to compare the performance of Whipple shields integrated with layers of metallic glasses with a baseline target analogue of one of the shields similar to … Your email. Hypervelocity Impact Testing on Simulated Lunar Materials. Based on impact analysis results, heavier/more capable MMOD shielding is used in red areas, and lighter/less capable shielding in blue areas.Photo credit: NASA. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. International Space Station MMOD shield locations (HVIT geometry model); each color represents a different level of impact risk. corroborated through analysis of the signals collected during a previous HVI test session. The overall trend is that the near Earth orbital debris environment is gradually getting worse. NASA.gov brings you the latest images, videos and news from America's space agency. Hypervelocity impact testing was carried out at the University of Kent at Canterbury’s Light Gas Gun facility [10]. Your browser or your browser's settings are not supported. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The tests were modeled using the commercial FE package ANSYS AUTODYN. Engineers and technicians design, test, and analyze spacecraft systems to reduce the risk from MMOD particle impact.  The team has performed thousands of hypervelocity impact tests that have yielded numerous efficient and effective shielding designs, as well as detailed data on the effect of MMOD impact on various spacecraft components.  The team applies state-of-the-art computer codes to improve the design of spacecraft MMOD protection systems and develop operational guidelines to reduce MMOD damage. HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT TESTING OF CFRP/AL HONEYCOMB SATELLITE STRUCTURES Frank Schäfer (1), Roberto Destefanis(2), Shannon Ryan , Werner Riedel(1), Michel Lambert(3) (1) Fraunhofer EMI (Ernst-Mach Institut), Eckerstraβe 4, 79104 Freiburg, Germany, Email: schaefer@emi.fhg.de, ryan@emi.fhg.de, riedel@emi.fhg.de Multiple soda lime glass spherical projectiles (50 ± 1.2 µm) were fired at the same time (the ”buckshot” technique) with impact velocities being recorded in the range between 5.5 and 5.9 km/s. In particular, hypervelocity is velocity so high that the strength of materials upon impact is very small compared to inertial stresses. The resulting shockwave that propagates across the material is reflected by the surfaces of the target, and reverses its direction of travel. Details Related. Validation of the numerical model is provided through comparison with the experimental results. 8 MMOD Hypervelocity Impact Testing & Piggyback Sensing UDRI Hypervelocity Launch Capabilities Projectile sizes range from 1.5mm to 12.7mm for Range 4 (20mm launch tube) two-stage, light-gas gun. In hypervelocity impacts, the projectile velocity exceeds the speed of sound within the target material. Projectile impacts from even seemingly harmless objects like a piece of foam or a bird can result in a catastrophic event. Your friend's email. NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration. HB26 panels for impact velocities ranging from 2000 m/s up to 6600 m/s. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Hypervelocity impact testing of advanced materials and structures for micrometeoroid and orbital debris shielding. UDRI's hypervelocity impact facility has 2 two-stage light-gas gun ranges for hypervelocity testing at velocities up to 24,600 ft/sec (7.5 km/sec). Follow this link to skip to the main content, MMOD shield ballistic limit determination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. The top performing candidate shield at the screening test condition was found to be a double-bumper configuration with a 0.25 mm thick Al3003 outer bumper, 6.35 mm thick 40 PPI aluminium foam inner bumper, and 1.016 mm thick Al2024-T3 rear wall (equal spacing between bumpers and rear wall). The tests were conducted at the Johnson Space Center Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility. Impact tests were conducted in darkness and with the ejected debris illuminated. ► Candidates with aluminium plate outer/foam inner bumpers consistently amongst top performers. Hypervelocity impact testing in early 1990s. Request PDF | Hypervelocity impact testing of transparent spacecraft materials | Transparent materials have been used by NASA as windows since the beginning of the Human Space Flight Program. To meet specific needs, we associate our expertise in physical testing, material characterization and numerical simulation to support you in the development of structures with higher impact resistance and which will generate less debris in the event of a collision. A method and system for detecting hypervelocity impacts on a detection surface utilizes multiple sensors that directly measure electrical pulse radio frequency (RF) emissions generated by hypervelocity impacts on a detection surface and time of arrival (TOA) position measurements for determining the precise impact location on the detection surface. High that the strength of materials subjected to hypervelocity impacts to develop from. 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